Welcome to www.ae86levinandtrueno.blogspot.com

Rabu, 5 Mei 2010

AE86 Levin and Trueno

AE86 History

The history of the AE86 dates back to 1983 when it was released on the Japanese Domestic Market. Although new sales weren't amazing, the AE86 has developed a huge international following both in the street and racing scenes. In this section I will show the variations of the AE86, expain it's history and why it is still a popular car today.

AE86 Versions

The AE86 was first produced in 1983 in Japan and this continued until half way through 1987. During this time there were two distinct versions produced, the zenki and the kouki. These two versions can be distinguished by their front indicators and their rear lights. The zenki has small front mounted indicators and rear lights with the word 'SPRINTER' across the top of the right light. The kouki has larger corner mounted front indicators and rear lights with either a red band across the top or a black band with a white stripe.

The AE86 was available in two body types, these were the coupe and the hatchback. The hatchback is the frame most enthusiasts think of when discussing the AE86.

To further broaden the purchasers choice when buying an AE86 there were two more variations on the AE86. These were the Sprinter Trueno and the Corolla Levin. These are still available today from Toyota as they have carried through the range up to present day in the form of the AE111. The key differences in the Trueno and Levin are in their light assembly. The Trueno was given pop-up head lights unique to the AE86 and the Levin was given fixed head lights very similar to those of the rest of the Corolla range of that era. Because of this set up the Levin had a larger grill between the lights than the Trueno, in later years the Trueno grill was phased out completely and the bonnet was simply extended between the lights.

The 4A-GE

In 1984 the 4A-GE was introduced as the replacement for Toyotas respected 2T-G engine. The 2T-G had a reputation as being a strong reliable engine and many people were initially scared of the fragile appearance of the 4A-GE. With 4 valves per cylinder, Toyota had to be careful with their construction methods as this new configuration did not allow for a design as visually robust as the 2T-G. This is because the head had to make way for 2 extra valves per cylinder and the engine as a whole needed to allow for high revolutions. Toyota improved its metallurgy to resolve these issues.

Why So Poplular?

Although the AE86 is now 20 years old it is experiencing a resurgence in popularity. There are three major factors contributing to this, firstly a Japanese cartoon called Initial D, secondly a form of Japanese motorsport known as drifting, and thirdly a lack of affordable, small rear wheel drive cars on the used car market.

In Initial D a young Japanese man who drives an AE86 engages in street racing with many of the most respected cars in the world today such as the Nissan Skyline GTR and the Mazda RX7. The series emphasizes the importance of driving ability and shows that expensive and powerful cars are useless without a skilled driver.

Drifting is a popular Japanese motorsport that involves inducing over-steer, usually in a rear wheel driven vehicle. This results in loss of traction in the rear wheels and the idea is to maintain this throughout the corner. Competition in Japan are rated on things such as drift style and ensuring the vehicle is drifted where ever possible. Drifting can be a graceful sport when executed properly but very expensive when things go wrong... and they usually do.

The AE86 was one of the last, if not the last, cheap rear wheel drive light light sports cars. After production of the AE86 ceased in 1987 there was very little choice for anyone wanting a similar car, most manufacturers, including Toyota switched to a front wheel drive format. The advantage of front wheel drive is that they generally weigh less, have more cabin space due to having no transmission tunnel, and are often thought of as safer for the average driver to handle. As most performance car enthusiasts know, if you open the throttle to much in a powerful rear wheel drive on a corner the consequences are usually much worse than doing the same in a powerful front wheel driven vehicle.

That's why AE86 is a LEGENDARY car.

The AE86 in Brunei Darussalam

The AE86 here came as Toyota Corolla GT AE86 a same model as Toyota Corolla Levin GT Apex but not equip with hydraulic power steering and limited slip rear differential. This version come with body package same as Toyota Levin AE86 but a body style is Toyota Levin AE85 a coloured body, unpainted bumper and spoiler. It may look like AE85 Levin but package is AE86 including 4A-GE 130ps, 5 speed manual and 4 disc brake.

The AE86 here known as "Corolla GT" and a nickname "Twincam" due to its rear GT Twincam 16 decal and the first car come in Brunei with that decal.

The AE86 here not came originally in Sprinter Trueno, some owner change their Corolla GT facelift to Trueno facelift but that facelift change is legal since no frame modification needed, only need to change bumper,fender,hood,headlamp and etc.

Toyota Corolla Levin GT Apex AE86.

Toyota Sprinter Trueno GT Apex AE86.

Toyota Corolla GT AE86.

Toyota Corolla Levin SR AE85.

Some local AE86 in Brunei Darussalam

Toyota 4AGE Engine

The next major modification was the high-performance 4A-G, with the fuel injected version, the 4A-GE, being the most powerful. The 4A-GE was one of the earliest inline-4 engines to have both a DOHC 16 valve configuration (four valves per cylinder, two intake, two exhaust) and electronic fuel injection (EFI). The cylinder head was developed by Yamaha Motor Corporation. The reliability and performance of these engines has earned them a fair number of enthusiasts and a fan base as they are a popular choice for an engine swap into other Toyota cars such as the KE70 and KP61. New performance parts are still available for sale even today because of its strong fan base. Production of the various models of this version lasted for five generations, from 1983 through 1991 for 16-valve versions and the 5-valve 4A-GE lasted through 1998.

The first-generation 16 valve 4A-GE which was introduced in 1983 replaced the 2T-G in most applications. This engine was identifiable via silver cam covers with the lettering on the upper cover painted black and blue, as well as the presence of three reinforcement ribs on the back side of the block. It was extremely light and strong for a production engine using an all-iron block, and produced 112 hp (84 kW) at 6600 rpm and 131 N·m (97 lb·ft) of torque at 4800 rpm in the American market. The use of a vane-type air flow meter (MAF), which restricted air flow slightly but produced cleaner emissions that conformed to the U.S. regulations, limited the power to 112 hp (84 kW); the Japanese model — which used a manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor — was originally rated at 130 PS (96 kW), however this was a gross power rating and the motor was later re-rated at 120 PS (88 kW) net. Japanese cars tested no faster than their American counterparts, despite a higher power rating and a lighter curb weight,

Toyota designed the engine for performance; the valve angle was a relatively wide 50 degrees, which at the time was believed to be ideal for high power production. Today, it should be noted that more modern high-revving engines have decreased the valve angle to 20 to 25 degrees, which is now believed to be ideal for high-revving engines with high power per litre. The first generation 4A-GE is nicknamed the "bigport" engine because it had intake ports of a very large cross-sectional area. While the port cross-section was suitable for a very highly modified engine at very high RPM, it caused a considerable drop in low-RPM torque due to the decreased air speeds at those RPM. To compensate for the reduced air speed, the first-generation engines included the T-VIS feature, in which dual intake runners are fitted with butterfly valves that opened at approximately 4200 rpm. The effect was that at lower RPM when the airspeed would normally be slow, four of the eight runners were closed, this forced the engine to draw in all its air through half the runners in the manifold. This raised the airspeed which caused better cylinder filling and also better fuel atomisation. This enabled the torque curve to still be intact at lower engine speeds, allowing for better performance across the entire speed band and a broad, flat torque curve around the crossover point. During rising engine speed, a slight lurch can occur at the crossover point and an experienced driver will be able to detect the shift in performance. Production of the first-generation engine model lasted through 1987.

The second-generation 16 valve 4A-GE produced from 1987 to 1989 featured larger diameter bearings for the connecting-rod big ends (42 mm) and added four additional reinforcement ribs on the back of the engine block, for a total of seven. The T-VIS feature is maintained. It is visually similar to the first-generation engine (only the upper cam cover now featured red and black lettering) and the power output was only increased to 115 hp (86 kW). The first- and second-generation engines are very popular with racers and tuners because of their availability, ease of modification, simple design, and lightness.

The third-generation 16 valve 4A-GE appeared in 1989 and was in production until 1991. This engine has the silver cam covers with the words only written in red, hence the nickname "red top". Toyota increased the compression ratio from 9.4:1 to 10.3:1. To correct the air-speed problems of the earlier generations, the intake ports in this cylinder head were re-designed to have a smaller cross-section, and hence it has been nick-named the "smallport" head. This change in the intake ports negated the need for the earlier twin-runner intake manifold and it was replaced with a single-runner manifold. Additional engine modifications to extend life and reliability included under-piston cooling oil squirters, thicker connecting rods and other components. Also of note, the pistons were changed to accept a 20 mm fully floating gudgen pin unlike the 18 mm pressed-in pins of the earlier versions. All non-U.S. market 4A-GEs continued to use a MAP sensor, while all of the U.S.-market 4A-GE engines came with a MAF sensor. This revision increased the power to 140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp) at 7200 rpm with a torque of 149 N·m (110 lb·ft) at 4800 rpm (130hp and 105 lb-ft for US-market cars).

The fourth-generation 4A-GE engine has 20valve was produced from 1991 to 1995. It has silver cam covers with chrome lettering, hence the nick-name "silver top". This engine yet again features a completely new cylinder head which uses five valves per cylinder instead of four. It uses Toyota Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system on the intake cam, an increased compression ratio (10.5:1), and the intake system was replaced with a short manifold with individual throttles and velocity stacks, however the vane-type airflow meter was retained, requiring the use of a plenum. The previous 16-valve head used a sharply curved intake port, while the 20-valve engine used a very upright straight port. This engine produces 160 PS (120 kW) at 7400 rpm with 16.5 kg·m (119 ft·lbf) at 5200 rpm of torque.

The fifth-generation 4A-GE engine has a 20valve engine produced from 1995 to 1998 is the final version of the 4A-GE engine and has black cam covers. This engine is commonly known as the "black top" due to the color of the valve cover, and yet again features an even higher compression ratio (11:1), the air flow sensor is replaced with a MAP sensor, the diameter of the four individual throttle bodies was increased from 42 mm to 45 mm, the exhaust port diameter was increased, the intake cam lift was increased from 7.9 mm to 8.2 mm and the intake ports were significantly improved in shape, contour and also the width at opening at the head was increased. Additionally, the black top had a lighter flywheel, a larger plenum, and revised rubber velocity stacks, and was also offered in 1997 with a six-speed C160 transaxle. This revision increased the power to 165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp) at 7800 rpm with 16.5 kg·m (119 ft·lbf) of torque at 5600 rpm. These figures were issued by Toyota and are considered optimistic. It is assumed that Toyota ran the motor without ancillaries to inflate the power ratings, as some companies did before the adoption of the SAE J1349 rating standards in 2005. Still, the 'Blacktop' has become a favorite among enthusiasts and is used as an easy power upgrade for the early Toyota Corolla models, especially for use in the drift scene. Squeezing extra power from such a highly strung N/A engine can be expensive because of the relatively high state of tuning of the stock motor, and most gains come from higher lift cams and engine management.

1) A 16Valve 4AGE T-VIS engine can be fitted on AE86 without any modification.
2) 16 Valve 4AGE non T-VIS can be fittted on AE86 with modification on intake manifold or using 4throttle from 20V 4AGE.
3) A 20Valve 4AGE can be fitted on AE86 but required water line,distributor n wiring modification.